Street children is the most common term to express children under the age of 18 years living homeless and spend long hours of the day or the whole day public spaces
Who is a street child?
A child who lives permanently in the street with no family ties or family ties are weak
Types of Street Children
1Street as a homebirth: They are children living in the street (in general, including its inclusion of abandoned buildings, parks, bridges and other places) as children living on the street permanently or semi-permanently without families and their relationships with their families of origin either disconnected or too weak.
2. Workers on the street: are children spend long hours every day on the street in various businesses often fall under the hawking and begging. Mostly returning to spend the night with their families and sometimes spend their nights on the street.
3. Families streets: children living with their families of origin in the street. , and according to this definition the United Nations estimated the number of street children in the world with 150 million children.
Reasons for the deployment of Street children:
There are many reasons for the deployment of the main reasons is the lack of interest in government with an average per capita income and the failure to establish the role of care to them and also of incest
1. Poverty: and that makes families pay its sons to the practice of begging and trade of some commodities marginal which exposes them to distractions and dangers of the street.
2. Conditions family: family circumstances play a key role in the spread of the phenomenon of street children and the most prominent of these factors are: 1. Disintegration of families either divorce or abandonment or death of a parent.
2. Large family size limit when parents are unable to guide them and meet their needs.
3. – High density home to the point of sleeping children
with parents in one room.
4. Differences and ongoing bickering between the couple
The Overall factors of Street Children:
1. The growth and spread of random groupings that represent the first well and receiving basic for street children.
2. Dropouts and push children into the labor market and the street
3. Lack of compulsory education schools. Ha – the lack of clubs and resorts buildings child into the street.
4. Exacerbate the housing problem and the lack of housing and health not fit to live with family size.
5. Breadth of the concept of individual freedom
6. The high unemployment rate among households that pay for their children to go out to the street
Street Children in Egypt:
The phenomenon of street children in Egypt as a time bomb that awaits explode from time to time, where report indicates the General Authority for Child Protection (NGO) that their numbers reached in 1999 to 2 million children in the continuously growing, making them prone to adopt criminal behavior in the Egyptian society.
General Directorate of Social Defense Statics shows the amount of increasing the size of misdemeanors related to exposure of street children to violate the law, where it was more misdemeanors are theft by 56%, and exposure to homelessness by 16.5%, and begging by 13.9%, and violence by 5.2%, and delinquency rate of 2.9%
Reasons for Street children in Egypt:
Research shows that take place on street children in Egypt multiplicity of factors that lead to the emergence and growing problem, and agree mostly on the main causes of the problem is poverty, unemployment, family disintegration, child abuse, neglect, school dropout, child labor, the impact of peer, and other factors psychosocial related social Ocean or the child’s personality, such as searching for excitement.
Also , they Face many problems and dangers, including violence, which represents the bulk of their daily lives, whether violence between groups of children are fairly young, or violence of the society around them, or violence at work.
Children are also exposed to society because they refused to unwanted children in areas of particular communities because of their appearance and behavior, as many of them fear arrest of policemen and thus returned to their families or care devices. In addition to exposure to a variety of health problems, and psychological problems due to their failure to adapt to life on the street.
So ,if we ask ourselves ,Why children have street their own goal?
We can answer this questions through many studies that street children in Egypt have needs directly and indirectly, including teaching profession, to get off work livelihood from subsistence and survival of their families in the case refer to them.
What did the government introduce of suggestions for this problems:
Ambassador Khattab Secretary-General of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood said “that the priorities will be focused on during the next phase is to implement the national strategy for rehabilitation and integration of street children, and discuss the role of ministries in support reception centers children and the possibility of establishing centers additional to provide health and social services for homeless children to draw them away from the street in preparation for the return to their families, and the training of social workers and psychologists to deal with them from the perspective of the rights of the child. “
The speech that the Council will expand in use by researchers police to deal with these children, and to provide the necessary measures to protect them during the seizure and prevent mixing with criminals, as well as the establishment of a hotline to receive complaints of children at risk, a project prepared by now the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood now
Healthy problems face Street Children:
1. Food poisoning: It occurs to children as a result of eating bad foods expired for human use, but street children collect from garbage and ate them.
2. Scabies: Many of the street children are infected with scabies.
3. Typhoid: a disease that is prevalent among street children as a result of eating unwashed vegetables collected street children of garbage or because of a meal gathering flies.
4. Malaria: due to the fact that street children are exposed to massive amounts of mosquitoes that transmit malaria while they sleep in public parks at night without blankets to protect them.
5. Anemia: infected street children anemia as a result of the lack of diversity and containing meals they eat all the necessary requirements for the construction of the body as a result of their poverty and lack of money they have.
6. Constant cough and fatigue in the chest: as a result of inhalation of street children to car exhaust exposure throughout the day in addition to their smoking cigarettes and exposure to colds in the winter as a result of their survival in the street
Solutions to the problem of street children:
1. Free education especially for the poor in the country and poor and developing countries worldwide.
2. Educational programs and volunteer convoys of young people to educate the family from the dangers of family problems, divorce and deprivation within families.
3. Interest religious and moral awareness among all members of the international community and local and seriousness of idleness and family dissolution.
4. Create with care homes to provide health care and physical and mental for street children
5. Interest in the establishment of clubs, recreational, educational and cultural and scientific trips to hydration of their creativity.
6. Work on the integration of street children after make them aware of the importance of education with normal children even melt the differences between them, and treat them as ordinary are heterosexual person.